In order to combat a problem in the build process (Could not GET ‘https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/com/android/tools/build/gradle/maven-metadata.xml’ (peer not authenticated)),
I removed (ionic platform remove android) the android platform and added it back in again (ionic platform add android).
After that I was able to successfully rebuild the project. But it seems like removing and re-adding the android platform somehow broke navigator.geolocation.GetCurrentPosition. When called it immediately returns a POSITION_UNAVAILABLE (2) code.
Anyone knows what might be going on?