I don’t know of one big diagram. This will be especially hard as “all related technologies” can encompass hundreds of names.
Basically it boils down to this:
Ionic has two basic parts: Ionic CLI is a thing that does stuff on the command line and Ionic Framework (ionic-angular) that is a framework for building apps.
ionic-angular is built on Angular as a base framework, so uses what Angular offers and adds stuff on top.Angular itself uses Typescript as a programming language, so Ionic does too. A big part of the “top” are the components and API, basically building blocks and code thingies you can use to build these apps. That’s what most of the Ionic docs are about, these building blocks make it so easy to build apps with Ionic.
Ionic CLI is a collection of commands to create Ionic projects (collection of files that are needed to run Angular and ionic-angular) and some commands to take these Ionic projects and make them into (mobile) apps using Cordova. Cordova takes a project and wraps it in some native code that runs on a platform like iOS or Android.
Then we have some related stuff:
Ionic Native is a library that helps you easily (in a syntax that matches all the other code) use Cordova plugins in your app. Cordova plugins let your app use stuff that normally is only available in the native parts of code, like camea, vibration, bluetooth, push notifications, SQLite etc - stuff normal websites can’t really use.
Ionic Storage is a library that helps you to store key-value stuff easily and abstracts away the different storage solutions that can be used.
Did I miss anything?