The difference in likes is because there are 22 likes (23 at the time of this reply) on the entire topic, including all of the likes people have received on replies to the topic.
The 11 likes that you received (the link format you are referring to) are on a topic. You received the Nice Topic badge. If you were to get 10 likes on one of your replies it would be considered a Nice Post. If you go to your profile you will see the different sections for Topics and Posts.